On the continuum of market-research tools, fMRI is the most extreme, the most expensive, the most complex, the most medical and it has to be used under particularly controlled conditions. It’s something that fascinates all of us and something that will continue to be used by scientists, but it is not in the mainstream of application.

We have seen great advances in how to build software and algorithms. . . to better understand and interpret the scientific information. Five years ago, there was a tipping point, a mushrooming of activity in this area, with really improved applications. You can’t go to a marketing or advertising conference anywhere in the world now and not have some form of neurometric, biometric or emotion-metric talk.